John Ralph

Photo of John Ralph
Professor (also Biological Systems Engineering & D.O.E. Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center)
B.Sc. (Hons). Chemistry, Canterbury U., New Zealand
Ph.D. Chemistry/Forestry, U. Wisconsin-Madison
Phone: (608) 890-2429
Email: jralph@wisc.edu

Publications

Most of the Ralph Group Publications are currently available from:
https://uwmadison.box.com/RalphLab-pdfs

Tricin-Lignins: Occurrence and Quantitation of Tricin in Relation to Phylogeny.
W. Lan, J. Rencoret, F. Lu, S.D. Karlen, B.G. Smith, P.J. Harris, J.C. Del Río, J. Ralph.
The Plant Journal, in press (2016) PMID: 27553717

Identification of 4-O-5-Units in Softwood Lignins via Definitive Lignin Models and NMR.
F. Yue, F. Lu, S. Ralph and J. Ralph.
Biomacromolecules, 17(6), 1909-1920 (2016).

Understanding the physicochemical characteristics and the improved enzymatic saccharification of corn stover pretreated with aqueous and gaseous ammonia.
C.G. Yoo, H. Kim, F. Lu, A. Azarpira, X. Pan, K.K. Oh, J.S. Kim, J. Ralph and T.H. Kim.
Bioenergy Research, 9(1), 67-76 (2016).

Characterizing phenol–formaldehyde adhesive cure chemistry within the wood cell wall.
D.J. Yelle and J. Ralph.
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 70, 26-36 (2016).

Determination of the structure and catalytic mechanism of Sorghum bicolor caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase.
A.M. Walker, S.A. Sattler, M. Regner, J.P. Jones, J. Ralph, W. Vermerris, S.E. Sattler and C. Kang.
Plant Physiology, in press (MSID: PP2016-00845R1) (2016). PMID: 27457122

Wege zur Verwertung von Lignin: Fortschritte in der Biotechnik, der Bioraffination und der Katalyse.
R. Rinaldi, R. Jastrzebshi, M.T. Clough, J. Ralph, M. Kennema, P.C.A. Bruijnincx and B.M. Weckhuysen.
Angewandte Chemie, 128, 2-61 (2016).

Paving the way for lignin valorisation: Recent advances in bioengineering, biorefining and catalysis.
R. Rinaldi, R. Jastrzebshi, M.T. Clough, J. Ralph, M. Kennema, P.C.A. Bruijnincx and B.M. Weckhuysen.
Angewandte Chemie (International Edition), 55, 2-54 (2016).

Rapid Py-GC/MS assessment of the structural alterations of lignins in genetically modified plants.
J. Rencoret, J.C. del Río, K.G.J. Nierop, A. Gutiérrez and J. Ralph.
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, in press (2016).

Sugarcane transgenics expressing MYB transcription factors show improved glucose release.
C.R. Poovaiah, W.P. Bweg, W. Lan, J. Ralph and H.D. Coleman.
Biotechnology For Biofuels, 9(143), 1-18 (2016).

BdCESA7, BdCESA8, and BdPMT utility promoter constructs for targeted expression to secondary cell-wall-forming cells of grasses.
D.L. Petrik, C.L. Cass, D. Padmakshan, C.E. Foster, J.P. Vogel, S.D. Karlen, J. Ralph and J.C. Sedbrook.
Frontiers in Plant Science, 7, 1-14 (2016).

Structural and biochemical characterization of the early and late enzymes in the lignin β-aryl ether cleavage pathway from Sphingobium sp SYK-6.
J.H. Pereira, R.A. Heins, D.L. Gall, R.P. McAndrew, K. Deng, K.C. Holland, T.J. Donohue, D.R. Noguera, B.A. Simmons, K.L. Sale, J. Ralph and P.D. Adams.
Journal of Biological Chemistry, 291(19), 10228-10238 (2016).

Designer lignins: harnessing the plasticity of lignification.
Y. Mottiar, R. Vanholme, W. Boerjan, J. Ralph and S.D. Mansfield.
Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 37(1), 190-200 (2016).

Maize tricin-oligolignol metabolites and their implications for monocot lignification.
W. Lan, K. Morreel, F. Lu, J. Rencoret, J.C. del Rio, W. Voorend, W. Vermerris, W. Boerjan and J. Ralph.
Plant Physiology, 171(2), 810-820 (2016).

Structural basis of stereospecificity in the bacterial enzymatic cleavage of β-aryl ether bonds in lignin.
K.E. Helmich, J.H. Pereira, D.L. Gall, R.A. Heins, R.P. McAndrew, C. Bingman, K. Deng, K.C. Holland, D.R. Noguera, B.A. Simmons, K.L. Sale, J. Ralph, T.J. Donohue, P.D. Adams and G.N. Phillips.
Journal of Biological Chemistry, 291(10), 5234-5246 (2016).

An essential role of caffeoyl shikimate esterase in monolignol biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula.
C.M. Ha, L. Escamilla-Trevino, J.C. Serrani-Yarce, H. Kim, J. Ralph, F. Chen and R.A. Dixon.
The Plant Journal, 86(5), 363-375 (2016).

Next-generation ammonia pretreatment enhances biofuel production from biomass via simultaneous cellulose decrystallization and lignin extraction.
L. da Costa Sousa, M. Jin, S. Chundawat, V. Bokade, X. Tang, A. Azarpira, F. Lu, U. Avici, J.F. Humpula, N. Uppugundla, C. Gunawan, A. Cheh, N. Kothari, R. Kumar, J. Ralph, M.G. Hahn, C.E. Wyman, S. Singh, B.A. Simmons, B.E. Dale and V. Balan.
Energy & Environmental Science, 9(4), 1215-1223 (2016).

Isolation and characterization of new lignin streams derived from Extractive Ammonia (EA) pretreatment.
L. da Costa Sousa, M. Foston, V. Bokade, A. Azarpira, F. Lu, A.J. Ragauskas, J. Ralph, B.E. Dale and V. Balan.
Green Chemistry, 18(15), 4205-4215 (2016).

Low temperature hydrogenation of pyrolytic lignin over Ru/TiO2: 2D HSQC and 13C NMR study of reactants and products.
W. Chen, D.J. McClelland, A. Arzarpira, J. Ralph, Z. Luo and G.W. Huber.
Green Chemistry, 18(1), 271-281 (2016).

Cell wall composition and biomass recalcitrance differences within a genotypically diverse set of Brachypodium distachyon inbred lines.
C.L. Cass, A.A. Lavell, N. Santoro, C.E. Foster, S.D. Karlen, R.A. Smith, J. Ralph, D.F. Garvin and J.C. Sedbrook.
Frontiers in Plant Science, 7, Article 708, 1-16 (2016).

Enhancing digestibility and ethanol yield of Populus wood via expression of an engineered monolignol 4-.
Y. Cai, K. Zhang, H. Kim, G. Hou, H. Yang, X. Zhang, H. Feng, L. Miller, J. Ralph and C.-J. Liu.
Nature Communications, 7, 11989: 1-14 (2016).

Effective alkaline metal-catalyzed oxidative delignification of hybrid poplar.
A. Bhalla, N. Bansal, R.J. Stoklosa, M. Fountain, J. Ralph, D.B. Hodge and E.L. Hegg.
Biotechnology For Biofuels, 9(34), 1-10 (2016).

A highly diastereoselective oxidant contributes to ligninolysis by the white rot basidiomycete Ceriporiopsis subvermispora.
D.J. Yelle, A.N. Kapich, C.J. Houtman, F. Lu, V.I. Timokhin, R.C. Fort, J. Ralph and K.E. Hammel.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 80(24), 7536-7544 (2015).

Syringyl lignin production in conifers: Proof of concept in a Pine tracheary element system.
A. Wagner, Y. Tobimatsu, L. Phillips, H. Flint, B. Geddes, F. Lu and J. Ralph.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(19), 6218-6223 (2015).

Introduction of chemically labile substructures into Arabidopsis lignin through the use of LigD, the Cα-dehydrogenase from Sphingobium sp. strain SYK-6.
Y. Tsuji, R. Vanholme, Y. Tobimatsu, Y. Ishikawa, C.E. Foster, N. Kamimura, S. Hishiyama, S. Hashimoto, A. Shino, H. Hara, K. Sato-Izawa, P. Oyarce, G. Goeminne, K. Morreel, J. Kikuchi, T. Takano, M. Fukuda, W. Boerjan, J. Ralph, E. Masai and S. Kajita.
Plant Biotechnology Journal, 13(6), 821-832 (2015).

Engineering monolignol p-coumarate conjugates into Poplar and Arabidopsis lignins.
R.A. Smith, E. Gonzales-Vigil, S.D. Karlen, J.-Y. Park, F. Lu, C.G. Wilkerson, L. Samuels, S.D. Mansfield and J. Ralph.
Plant Physiology, 169(4), 2992-3001 (2015).

Plant-derived antifungal agent poacic acid targets β-1,3-glucan.
J.S. Piotrowski, O. H., F. Lu, S.C. Li, L. Hinchman, A. Rangjan, D.L. Smith, A.J. Higbee, A. Ulbrich, J.J. Coon, D. R., Y.V. Bukhman, S. McIlwain, I.M. Ong, C.L. Myers, C. Boone, R. Landick, J. Ralph, M. Kabbage and Y. Ohya.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(12), E1490-E1497 (2015).

Analysis of a modern hybrid and an ancient sugarcane implicates a complex interplay of factors in affecting recalcitrance to cellulosic ethanol production.
V.G.d.C. Peoelking, A. Giordano, M.E. Ricci-Silva, T.C. Rhys Williams, D.A. Peçanha, M.C. Ventrella, J. Rencoret, J. Ralph, M.H. Pereira Barbosa and M. Loureiro.
PLoS ONE, 10(8), e0134964, 1-25 (2015).

Aromatic monomer production integrated into the γ-valerolactone sugar platform.
J.S. Luterbacher, A. Azarpira, A.H. Motagamwala, F. Lu, J. Ralph and J.A. Dumesic.
Energy and Environmental Science, 8(9), 2657-2663 (2015).

Naturally p-hydroxybenzoylated lignins in palms.
F. Lu, S.D. Karlen, M. Regner, H. Kim, S.A. Ralph, R.-c. Sun, K.-i. Kuroda, M.A. Augustin, R. Mawson, H. Sabarez, T. Singh, G. Jimenez-Monteon, S. Hill, P.J. Harris, W. Boerjan, S.D. Mansfield and J. Ralph.
Bioenergy Research, 8(3), 934-952 (2015).

Using 2D NMR spectroscopy to assess effects of UV radiation on cell wall chemistry during litter decomposition.
Y. Lin, J.Y. King, S.D. Karlen and J. Ralph.
Biogeochemistry, 125(3), 427-436 (2015).

Chemical and structural changes associated with Cu-catalyzed alkaline-oxidative delignification of hybrid poplar.
Z. Li, N. Bansal, A. Azarpira, A. Bhalla, C.H. Chen, J. Ralph, E.L. Hegg and D.B. Hodge.
Biotechnology For Biofuels, 8(123), 1-12 (2015).

Tricin, a flavonoid monomer in monocot lignification.
W. Lan, F. Lu, M. Regner, Y. Zhu, J. Rencoret, S.A. Ralph, U.I. Zakai, K. Morreel, W. Boerjan and J. Ralph.
Plant Physiology, 167(4), 1284-1295 (2015).

Incorporation of flavonoid derivatives or pentagalloyl glucose into lignin enhances cell wall saccharification following mild alkaline or acidic pretreatments.
J.H. Grabber, N. Santoro, C.E. Foster, S. Elumalai, J. Ralph and X. Pan.
Bioenergy Research, 8(3), 1391-1400 (2015).

Small glycosylated lignin polymers are stored in Arabidopsis leaf vacuoles.
O. Dima, K. Morreel, B. Vanholme, H. Kim, J. Ralph and W. Boerjan.
Plant Cell, 27(3), 695-710 (2015).

Differences in the chemical structure of the lignins from sugarcane bagasse and straw.
J.C. del Río, A.G. Lino, J.L. Colodette, C.F. Lima, A. Gutiérrez, A.T. Martínez, F. Lu, J. Ralph and J. Rencoret.
Biomass & Bioenergy, 81, 322-328 (2015).

Effects of PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE (PAL) knockdown on cell wall composition, biomass digestibility, and biotic and abiotic stress responses in Brachypodium.
C.L. Cass, A. Peraldi, P.F. Dowd, Y. Mottiar, N. Santoro, S.D. Karlen, Y. Bukhman, C.E. Foster, N. Thrower, L.C. Bruno, O. Moskvin, E.T. Johnson, M.E. Willhoit, M. Phutane, J. Ralph, S.D. Mansfield, P. Nicholson and J.C. Sedbrook.
Journal of Experimental Botany, 66(14), 4317-4335 (2015).

The Cell Wall.
N. Carpita, J. Ralph and M. McCann.
In Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants, B.B. Buchanan, W. Gruissem and R.L. Jones, Eds., Wiley Blackwell, Chichester, UK, pp. 45-110 (2015).

Manipulation of guaiacyl and syringyl monomer synthesis in an Arabidopsis Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase mutant results in atypical lignin biosynthesis and modified cell wall structure.
N.A. Anderson, Y. Tobimatsu, P.N. Ciesielski, E. Ximenes, J. Ralph, B.S. Donohoe, M. Ladisch and C. Chapple.
Plant Cell, 27(8), 2195-2209 (2015).

Monolignol ferulate transferase introduces chemically labile linkages into the lignin backbone.
C.G. Wilkerson, S.D. Mansfield, F. Lu, S. Withers, J. Park, S.D. Karlen, E. Gonzales-Vigil, D. Padmakshan, F. Unda, J. Rencoret and J. Ralph.
Science, 344(6179), 90-93 (2014).

Accumulation of N-acetylglucosamine oligomers in the plant cell wall affects plant architecture in a dose-dependent and conditional manner.
B. Vanholme, R. Vanholme, H. Turumtay, G. Goeminne, I. Ceserano, F. Goubet, K. Morreel, J. Rencoret, V. Bulone, C. Hoojimaijers, R. De Rycke, G. Godelieve, J. Ralph, M. De Block, F. Muelewaeter and W. Boerjan.
Plant Physiology, 165(1), 290-308 (2014).

Improved saccharification and ethanol yield from field-grown transgenic poplar deficient in cinnamoyl-CoA reductase.
R. Van Acker, J.-C. Leplé, D. Aerts, V. Storme, G. Goeminne, B. Ivens, F. Légee, C. Lapierre, K. Piens, M.C.E. Van Montagu, N. Santoro, C.E. Foster, J. Ralph, W. Soetaert, G. Pilate and W. Boerjan.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(2), 845-850 (2014).

A click chemistry strategy for visualization of plant cell wall lignification.
Y. Tobimatsu, D. Wouver, E. Allen, R. Kumpf, B. Vanholme, W. Boerjan and J. Ralph.
Chemical Communications, 50, 12262-12265 (2014).

Structure-guided analysis of catalytic specificity of the abundantly secreted chitosanase SACTE_5457 from Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E.
T.E. Takasuka, C.M. Bianchetti, Y. Tobimatsu, L.F. Bergemann, J. Ralph and B.G. Fox.
Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics, 82(7), 1245-1257 (2014).

Mutation of the inducible ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA CYTOCHROME P450 REDUCTASE2 alters lignin composition and improves saccharification.
L. Sundin, R. Vanholme, J. Geerinck, G. Goeminne, R. Höfer, H. Kim, J. Ralph and W. Boerjan.
Plant Physiology, 166(4), 1956-1971 (2014).

Laccases direct lignification in the discrete secondary cell wall domains of protoxylem.
M. Schuetz, A. Benzke, R. Smith, Y. Watanabe, Y. Tobimatsu, J. Ralph, T. Demura, B. Ellis and L. Samuels.
Plant Physiology, 166(2), 798-807 (2014).

p-Coumaroyl-CoA:Monolignol Transferase (PMT) acts specifically in the lignin biosynthetic pathway in Brachypodium distachyon.
D. Petrik, S.D. Karlen, C. Cass, D. Padmakshan, F. Lu, S. Liu, P. Le Bris, S. Antelme, N. Santoro, C.G. Wilkerson, R. Sibout, C. Lapierre, J. Ralph and J.C. Sedbrook.
The Plant Journal, 77(5), 713-726 (2014).

Phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase prevents accumulation of compounds formed under oxidative conditions in Poplar xylem.
C. Niculaes, K. Morreel, H. Kim, F. Lu, L. McKee, B. Ivens, J. Haustraete, B. Vanholme, M. Hertzberg, J. Fromm, V. Bulone, A. Polle, J. Ralph and W. Boerjan.
The Plant cell, 26(9), 3775-3791 (2014).

Systematic structural characterization of metabolites in Arabidopsis via candidate substrate-product pair networks.
K. Morreel, Y. Saeys, O. Dima, F. Lu, Y. Van de Peer, R. Vanholme, J. Ralph, B. Vanholme and W. Boerjan.
Plant Cell, 26(3), 929-945 (2014).

The DFRC (Derivatization Followed by Reductive Cleavage) method and its applications for lignin characterization.
F. Lu and J. Ralph.
In Lignin: Structural Analysis, Applications in Biomaterials, and Ecological Significance, F. Lu, Eds., Nova Science Publishers, Inc, Hauppauge, New York, USA, pp. 27-65 (2014).

A gel-state 2D-NMR method for plant cell wall profiling and analysis: a model study with the amorphous cellulose and xylan from ball-milled cotton linters.
H. Kim and J. Ralph.
RSC Advances, 4(15), 7549-7560 (2014).

Determination of the structure and catalytic mechanism of Sorghum bicolor caffeic acid O-methyltransferase and the structural impact of three brown midrib12 mutations.
A.R. Green, K.M. Lewis, J.T. Barr, J.P. Jones, F. Lu, J. Ralph, W. Vermerris, S.E. Sattler and C. Kang.
Plant Physiology, 165(4), 1440-1456 (2014).

Influence of Populus genotype on gene expression by the wood decay fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.
J. Gaskell, A. Marty, M. Mozuch, P.J. Kersten, S.S. DonDurant, G. Sabat, A. Azarpira, J. Ralph, O. Skyba, S.D. Mansfield, R.A. Blanchette and D. Cullen.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 80(18), 5828-5835 (2014).

A group of sequence-related sphingomonad enzymes catalyzes cleavage of β-aryl ether linkages in lignin β-guaiacyl and β-syringyl ether dimers.
D.L. Gall, J. Ralph, T.J. Donohue and D.R. Noguera.
Environmental Science & Technology, 48(20), 12454-12463 (2014).

Stereochemical features of glutathione-dependent enzymes in the Sphingobium sp. Strain SYK-6 β-aryl etherase pathway.
D.L. Gall, H. Kim, F. Lu, T.J. Donohue, D.R. Noguera and J. Ralph.
Journal of Biological Chemistry, 289(12), 8656-8667 (2014).

Towards lignin-protein crosslinking: amino acid adducts of a lignin model quinone methide.
B.G. Diehl, H.D. Watts, J.D. Kubicki, M.R. Regner, J. Ralph and N.R. Brown.
Cellulose, 21(3), 1395-1407 (2014).

Disruption of Mediator rescues the stunted growth of a lignin-deficient Arabidopsis mutant.
N.D. Bonawitz, J.I. Kim, Y. Tobimatsu, P.N. Ciesielski, N.A. Anderson, E. Ximenes, J. Maeda, J. Ralph, B.S. Donohoe, M. Ladisch and C. Chapple.
Nature, 509(7500), 376-380 (2014).

In search of clean, affordable energy.
Z. Bao, S.M. Benson, J.A. Dionne, K. Maher, W. Boerjan, C. Halpin, R. Nelson, D. Nichols, J. Ralph and T.S. Ramakrishnan.
Oilfield Review, 26(1), 4-15 (2014).

Catalytic alkaline oxidation of lignin and its model compounds: A pathway to aromatic biochemicals.
A. Azarpira, J. Ralph and F. Lu.
BioEnergy Research, 7(1), 78-86 (2014).

Preparation of monolignol γ-acetate, γ-p-hydroxycinnamate, and γ-p-hydroxybenzoate conjugates: Selective deacylation of phenolic acetates with hydrazine acetate.
Y. Zhu, M. Regner, F. Lu, H. Kim, A. Mohammadi, T.J. Pearson and J. Ralph.
RSC Advances, 3(44), 21964-21971 (2013).

Loss of function of Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase 1 causes accumulation of an unconventional lignin and a temperature-sensitive growth defect in Medicago truncatula.
Q. Zhao, Y. Tobimatsu, R. Zhou, S. Pattathil, L. Gallego-Giraldo, C. Fu, G.L. Shadle, L.A. Jackson, M.G. Hahn, H. Kim, J. Ralph, F. Chen and R.A. Dixon.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(33), 13660-13665 (2013).

Two-dimensional NMR evidence for cleavage of lignin and xylan substituents in wheat straw through hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis.
D.J. Yelle, P. Kaparaju, C.G. Hunt, K. Hirth, H. Kim, J. Ralph and C. Felby.
BioEnergy Research, 6(1), 211-221 (2013).

Suppression of CCR changes metabolite profile and cell wall composition in Pinus radiata tracheary elements.
A. Wagner, Y. Tobimatsu, G. Goeminne, L. Phillips, H. Flint, D. Steward, K.M. Torr, W. Boerjan and J. Ralph.
Plant Molecular Biology, 81(1-2), 105-117 (2013).

Profiling of diferulates (plant cell wall cross-linkers) using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
R. Vismeh, F. Lu, S. Chundawat, J.F. Humpula, A. Azarpira, J. Ralph, V. Balan, B.E. Dale and A.D. Jones.
Analyst, 138(21), 6683-6692 (2013).

Caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE), a newly discovered gene in the lignin biosynthetic pathway.
R. Vanholme, I. Cesarino, K. Rataj, Y. Xiao, L. Sundin, G. Goeminne, H. Kim, J. Cross, K. Morreel, P. Araujo, L. Welsh, J. Haustraete, C. McClellan, B. Vanholme, J. Ralph, G. Simpson, C. Halpin and W. Boerjan.
Science, 341(6150), 1103-1106 (2013).

Breeding with rare defective alleles: A natural Populus nigra HCT mutant with modified lignin as a case study.
B. Vanholme, I. Cesarino, G. Goeminne, H. Kim, F. Maroni, R. Van Acker, R. Vanholme, K. Morreel, B. Ivens, S. Pinosio, M. Morgante, J. Ralph, C. Bastien and W. Boerjan.
New Phytologist, 198(3), 765-776 (2013).

Visualization of plant cell wall lignification using fluorescence-tagged monolignols.
Y. Tobimatsu, A. Wagner, L. Donaldson, P. Mitra, C. Niculaes, O. Dima, J.-I. Kim, N.A. Anderson, D. Loque, W. Boerjan, C. Chapple and J. Ralph.
The Plant Journal, 76(3), 357-366 (2013).

Coexistence but independent biosynthesis of catechyl and guaiacyl/syringyl lignins in plant seeds.
Y. Tobimatsu, F. Chen, J. Nakashima, L. Jackson, L.L. Escamilla-Treviño, R.A. Dixon and J. Ralph.
The Plant Cell, 25(7), 2587-2600 (2013).

Structural characterization of the lignin from coconut (Cocos nucifera) coir fibers.
J. Rencoret, J. Ralph, G. Marques, A. Gutiérrez, Á.T. Martínez and J.C. del Rio.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61(10), 2434-2445 (2013).

Chemoselective metal-free aerobic alcohol oxidation in lignin.
A. Rahimi, A. Azarpira, H. Kim, J. Ralph and S.S. Stahl.
Journal of the American Chemical Society, 135(17), 6415-6418 (2013).

Ptr-miR397a is a negative regulator of laccase genes affecting lignin content in Populus trichocarpa.
S. Lu, Q. Li, H. Wie, M.-J. Chang, S. Taunlaya-Anukit, H. Kim, J. Liu, J. Song, Y.-H. Sun, L. Yuan, T.-F. Yeh, J. Ralph, R.R. Sederoff and V.L. Chiang.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(26), 10848-10853 (2013).

Benzoyl-CoA pathway-mediated metabolism of meta-hydroxy-aromatic acids in Rhodopseudomonas palustris.
D.L. Gall, J. Ralph, T.J. Donohue and D.R. Noguera.
Journal of Bacteriology, 195(18), 4112-4120 (2013).

Plant cell wall profiling by fast maximum likelihood reconstruction (FMLR) and region-of-interest (ROI) segmentation of solution-state 2D 1H–13C NMR spectra.
R.A. Chylla, R. Van Acker, H. Kim, A. Azarpira, P. Mukerjee, J.L. Markley, V. Storme, W. Boerjan and J. Ralph.
Biotechnology for Biofuels, 6(45), 1-14 (2013).

Novel seed coat lignins in the Cactaceae: structure, distribution and implications for the evolution of lignin diversity.
F. Chen, Y. Tobimatsu, L. Jackson, J. Nakashima, J. Ralph and R.A. Dixon.
The Plant Journal, 73(2), 201-211 (2013).

Simulated moving bed chromatography: separation and recovery of sugars and ionic liquid from biomass hydrolysates.
B.R. Caes, T.R. Van Oosbree, F. Lu, J. Ralph, C.T. Maravelias and R.T. Raines.
ChemSusChem, 6(11), 2083-2089 (2013).

Facile synthesis of 4-hydroxycinnamaldehydes.
Y. Zhu, A. Mohammadi and J. Ralph.
BioEnergy Research, 5(2), 407-411 (2012).

An engineered monolignol 4-O-methyltransferase depresses lignin biosynthesis and confers novel metabolic capability in Arabidopsis.
K. Zhang, M.-W. Bhuiya, J. Rencoret Pazo, Y. Miao, H. Kim, J. Ralph and C.-J. Liu.
Plant Cell, 24(7), 3122-3139 (2012).

Syntheses of lignin-derived thioacidolysis monomers and their uses as quantitation standards.
F. Yue, F. Lu, R.-C. Sun and J. Ralph.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60(4), 922-928 (2012).

Synthesis and characterization of new 5-linked pinoresinol lignin models.
F. Yue, F. Lu, R. Sun and J. Ralph.
Chemistry, A European Journal, 18(51), 16402-16410 (2012).

Identification of a grass-specific enzyme that acylates monolignols with p-coumarate.
S. Withers, F. Lu, H. Kim, Y. Zhu, J. Ralph and C.G. Wilkerson.
Journal of Biological Chemistry, 287(11), 8347-8355 (2012).

Lignification and lignin manipulations in conifers.
A. Wagner, L. Donaldson and J. Ralph.
In Advances in Botanical Research. Lignins: Biosynthesis, Biodegradation and Bioengineering, L. Jouanin and C. Lapierre, Eds., Academic Press, Burlington, Vol. 61, pp. 37-76 (2012).

Metabolic engineering of novel lignin in biomass crops.
R. Vanholme, K. Morreel, C. Darrah, P. Oyarce, J.H. Grabber, J. Ralph and W. Boerjan.
New Phytologist, 196(4), 978-1000 (2012).

Hydroxycinnamate conjugates as potential monolignol replacements: in vitro lignification and cell wall studies with rosmarinic acid.
Y. Tobimatsu, S. Elumalai, J.H. Grabber, C.L. Davidson, X. Pan and J. Ralph.
ChemSusChem, 5(4), 676-686 (2012).

Effects on lignin structure of coumarate 3-hydroxylase downregulation in Poplar.
J. Ralph, T. Akiyama, H.D. Coleman and S.D. Mansfield.
BioEnergy Research, 5(4), 1009-1019 (2012).

Whole plant cell wall characterization using solution-state 2D-NMR.
S.D. Mansfield, H. Kim, F. Lu and J. Ralph.
Nature Protocols, 7(9), 1579-1589 (2012).

Rapid syntheses of dehydrodiferulates via biomimetic radical coupling reactions of ethyl ferulate.
F. Lu, L. Wei, A. Azarpira and J. Ralph.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60(34), 8272-8277 (2012).

Environmental stresses of field growth allow cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient Nicotiana attenuata plants to compensate for their structural deficiencies.
H. Kaur, K. Shaker, N. Heinzel, J. Ralph, I. Galis and I.T. Baldwin.
Plant Physiology, 159(4), 1545-1570 (2012).

Identifying new lignin bioengineering targets: Impact of epicatechin, quercetin glycoside, and gallate derivatives on the lignification and fermentation of maize cell walls.
J.H. Grabber, D.K. Ress and J. Ralph.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60(20), 5152-5160 (2012).

Biosynthesis and incorporation of side-chain-truncated lignin monomers to reduce lignin polymerization degree and enhance saccharification.
A. Eudes, J.S. Kim, A. George, P. Mukerjee, B. Pollet, P.I. Benke, F. Yang, P. Pradhan, L. Sun, O. Persil-Cetinkol, G. Mouille, L. Soubigou-Taconnat, S. Balzergue, S. Singh, B.M. Holmes, A. Mukhopadhyay, J.D. Keasling, C. Lapierre, B.A. Simmons, J. Ralph and D. Loqué.
Plant Biotechnology Journal, 10(5), 609-620 (2012).

Epigallocatechin gallate incorporation into lignin enhances the alkaline delignification and enzymatic saccharification of cell walls.
S. Elumalai, Y. Tobimatsu, J.H. Grabber, X. Pan and J. Ralph.
Biotechnology for Biofuels, 5, 59 (2012).

Structural characterization of wheat straw lignin as revealed by analytical pyrolysis, 2D-NMR, and reductive cleavage methods.
J.C. del Rio, J. Rencoret, P. Prinsen, Á.T. Martínez, J. Ralph and A. Gutiérrez.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60(23), 5922-5935 (2012).

Structural characterization of the lignin in the cortex and pith of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) stems.
J.C. del Río, P. Prinsen, J. Rencoret, L. Nieto, J. Jiménez-Barbero, J. Ralph, Á.T. Martínez and A. Gutiérrez.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60(14), 3619-3634 (2012).

A polymer of caffeyl alcohol in plant seeds.
F. Chen, Y. Tobimatsu, D. Havkin-Frenkel, R.A. Dixon and J. Ralph.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(5), 1772-1777 and COVER ARTICLE; Editors’ choice highlight in Science, 335, 382 (2012). (2012).

Cellulose microfibril angles and cell-wall polymers in different wood types of Pinus radiata.
M. Brennan, J.P. McLean, C. Altaner, J. Ralph and P.J. Harris.
Cellulose, 19(4), 1385-1404 (2012).

Stereoselective synthesis of 1-O-β-feruloyl and 1-O-β-sinapoyl glucopyranoses.
Y. Zhu and J. Ralph.
Tetrahedron Letters, 52(29), 3729-3731 (2011).

Multidimensional NMR analysis reveals truncated lignin structures in wood decayed by the brown rot basidiomycete Postia placenta.
D.J. Yelle, D. Wei, J. Ralph and K.E. Hammel.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 13(4), 1091-1100 (2011).

Delineating pMDI-model reactions with loblolly pine via solution-state NMR spectroscopy. Part 2. Non-catalyzed reactions with the wood cell wall.
D.J. Yelle, J. Ralph and C.R. Frihart.
Holzforschung, 65(2), 145-154 (2011).

Delineating pMDI-model reactions with loblolly pine via solution-state NMR spectroscopy. Part 1. Catalyzed reactions with wood models and wood polymers.
D.J. Yelle, J. Ralph and C.R. Frihart.
Holzforschung, 65(2), 131-143 (2011).

Significant alteration of gene expression in wood decay fungi Postia placenta and Phanerochaete chrysosporium by plant species.
A.V. Wymelenberg, J. Gaskell, M. Mozuch, S.S. BonDurant, G. Sabat, J. Ralph, O. Skyba, S.D. Mansfield, R.A. Blanchette, I.V. Grigoriev, P.J. Kersten and D. Cullen.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77(13), 4499-4507 (2011).

Independent recruitment of an O-methyltransferase for syringyl lignin biosynthesis in Selaginella moellendorffii.
J.-K. Weng, T. Akiyama, J. Ralph, B.L. Golden and C. Chapple.
Plant Cell, 23(7), 2708-2724 (2011).

CCoAOMT suppression modifies lignin composition in Pinus radiata.
A. Wagner, Y. Tobimatsu, L. Phillips, H. Flint, K.M. Torr, L. Donaldson, L. Te Kiri and J. Ralph.
The Plant Journal, 67(1), 119-129 (2011).

Molecular and biochemical basis for stress-induced accumulation of free and bound p-coumaraldehyde in Cucumis sativus.
M. Varbanova, K. Porter, F. Lu, J. Ralph, R. Hammerschmidt, A.D. Jones and B. Day.
Plant Physiology, 157(3), 1056-1066 (2011).

Fluorescence-tagged monolignols: Synthesis and application to studying in vitro lignification.
Y. Tobimatsu, C.L. Davidson, J.H. Grabber and J. Ralph.
Biomacromolecules, 12(5), 1752-1761 (2011).

The charophycean green algae provide insights into early origins of plant cell walls.
I. Sørensen, F.A. Pettolino, A. Bacic, J. Ralph, F. Lu, M.A. O’Neill, Z. Fei, J.K.C. Rose, D.S. Domozych and W.G.T. Willats.
The Plant Journal, 68(2), 201-211 (2011).

Lignin composition and structure in young versus adult Eucalyptus globulus plants.
J. Rencoret, A. Gutiérrez, L. Nieto, J. Jiménez-Barbero, C.B. Faulds, H. Kim, J. Ralph, Á.T. Martínez and J.C. del Río.
Plant Physiology, 155(2), 667-682 (2011).

Solution-state NMR of lignocellulosic biomass.
F. Lu and J. Ralph.
Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy, 5(2), 169-180 (2011).

The DUF579 domain containing proteins IRX15 and IRX15-L affect xylan synthesis in Arabidopsis.
J.K. Jensen, H. Kim, J.-C. Cocuron, R. Orler, J. Ralph and C.G. Wilkerson.
The Plant Journal, 66(3), 387-400 (2011).

Multi-scale visualization and characterization of lignocellulosic plant cell wall deconstruction during thermochemical pretreatment.
S.P.S. Chundawat, B.S. Donohoe, L. da Costa Sousa, T. Elder, U.P. Agarwal, F. Lu, J. Ralph, M.E. Himmel, V. Balan and B.E. Dale.
Energy and Environmental Science, 4(3), 973-984 (2011).

Reactions of dehydrodiferulates with ammonia.
A. Azarpira, F. Lu and J. Ralph.
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, (9), 6779-6787 (2011).

Isolation of cellulolytic enzyme lignin from wood pre-swollen/dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide/N-methylimidazole.
A. Zhang, F. Lu, R. Sun and J. Ralph.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(6), 3446-3450 (2010).

Comparative transcriptome and secretome analysis of wood decay fungi Postia placenta and Phanerochaete chrysosporium.
A.V. Wymelenberg, J. Gaskell, M. Mozuch, G. Sabat, J. Ralph, O. Skyba, S.D. Mansfield, R.A. Blanchette, D. Martinez, I. Grigoriev, P.J. Kersten and D. Cullen.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 76(11), 3599-3610 (2010).

Convergent evolution of syringyl lignin biosynthesis via distinct pathways in the lycophyte Selaginella and flowering plants.
J.-K. Weng, T. Akiyama, N.D. Bonawitz, X. Li, J. Ralph and C. Chapple.
Plant Cell, 22(4), 1033-1045 (2010).

Engineering traditional monolignols out of lignins by concomitant up-regulation F5H1 and down-regulation of COMT in Arabidopsis
R. Vanholme, J. Ralph, T. Akiyama, F. Lu, J. Rencoret Pazo, J. Christensen, A. Rohde, K. Morreel, R. DeRycke, H. Kim, B. Van Reusel and W. Boerjan.
The Plant Journal, 64(6), 885-897 (2010).

Lignin biosynthesis and structure.
R. Vanholme, K. Morreel, J. Ralph and W. Boerjan.
Plant Physiology, 153(3), 895-905 (2010).

Modeling lignin polymerization. I. Simulation model of dehydrogenation polymers.
F. van Parijs, K. Morreel, J. Ralph, W. Boerjan and R.M.H. Merks.
Plant Physiology, 153(3), 1332-1344 (2010).

Advances in modifying lignin for enhanced biofuel production.
B.A. Simmons, D. Loqué and J. Ralph.
Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 13(3), 313-320 (2010).

Comparative study of SPORL and dilute-acid pretreatments of spruce for cellulosic ethanol production.
L. Shuai, Q. Yang, J.Y. Zhu, F.C. Lu, P.J. Weimer, J. Ralph and X.J. Pan.
Bioresource Technology, 101(9), 3106-3114 (2010).

NMR of Lignins.
J. Ralph and L.L. Landucci.
In Lignin and Lignans; Advances in Chemistry, C. Heitner, D.R. Dimmel and J.A. Schmidt, Eds., CRC Press (Taylor & Francis Group), Boca Raton, FL, pp. 137-234 (2010).

Hydroxycinnamates in Lignification.
J. Ralph.
Phytochemistry Reviews, 9(1), 65-83 (2010).

Mass-spectrometry-based fragmentation as an identification tool in lignomics.
K. Morreel, H. Kim, F. Lu, O. Dima, T. Akiyama, R. Vanholme, C. Niculaes, G. Goeminne, D. Inzé, E. Messens, J. Ralph and W. Boerjan.
Analytical Chemistry, 82(19), 8095-8105 (2010).

Mass-spectrometry-based sequencing of lignin oligomers.
K. Morreel, O. Dima, H. Kim, F. Lu, C. Niculaes, R. Vanholme, R. Dauwe, G. Goeminne, D. Inzé, E. Messens, J. Ralph and W. Boerjan.
Plant Physiology, 153(4), 1464-1478 (2010).

Sequencing around 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol-derived units in caffeic acid O-methyltransferase-deficient poplar lignins.
F. Lu, J.M. Marita, C. Lapierre, L. Jouanin, K. Morreel, W. Boerjan and J. Ralph.
Plant Physiology, 153(2), 569-579 (2010).

Solution-state 2D NMR of ball-milled plant cell wall gels in DMSO-d6/pyridine-d5.
H. Kim and J. Ralph.
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, 8(3), 576-591 (2010).

Identifying new lignin bioengineering targets: 1. Monolignol substitute impacts on lignin formation and cell wall fermentability.
J.H. Grabber, P.F. Schatz, H. Kim, F. Lu and J. Ralph.
BMC Plant Biology, 10(114), 1-13 (2010).

Understanding the impact of ionic liquid pretreatment on eucalyptus.
Ö.P. Çetinkol, D.C. Dibble, G. Cheng, M.S. Kent, B. Knierim, M. Auer, D.E. Wemmer, J.G. Pelton, Y.B. Melnichenko, J. Ralph, B.A. Simmons and B.M. Holmes.
Biofuels, 1(1), 33-46 (2010).

Ferulate-coniferyl alcohol cross-coupled products formed by radical coupling reactions.
A. Zhang, F. Lu, R. Sun and J. Ralph.
Planta, 229(5), 1099-1108 (2009).

Suppression of 4-coumarate-CoA ligase in the coniferous gymnosperm Pinus radiata.
A. Wagner, L. Donaldson, H. Kim, L. Phillips, H. Flint, D. Steward, K. Torr, G. Koch, U. Schmitt and J. Ralph.
Plant Physiology, 149(1), 370-383 (2009).

Monoclonal antibodies to p-coumarate.
O. Tranquet, Saulnier, Luc, Utille, J. P., Ralph, J., Guillon, F.
Phytochemistry, 70, 1366-1373 (2009).

2D-NMR (HSQC) difference spectra between specifically 13C-enriched and unenriched protolignin of Ginkgo biloba obtained in the solution-state of whole cell wall material.
N. Terashima, T. Akiyama, S.A. Ralph, D. Evtuguin, C. Pascoal Neto, J. Parkås, M. Paulsson, U. Westermark and J. Ralph.
Holzforschung, 63, 379-384 (2009).

The effects on lignin structure of overexpression of ferulate 5-hydroxylase in hybrid Poplar.
J.J. Stewart, T. Akiyama, C.C.S. Chapple, J. Ralph and S.D. Mansfield.
Plant Physiology, 150(2), 621-635 (2009).

Quinone methides in lignification.
J. Ralph, P.F. Schatz, F. Lu, H. Kim, T. Akiyama and S.F. Nelsen.
In Quinone Methides, S. Rokita, Eds., Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, NJ, Vol. 1, pp. 385-420 (2009).

Discovery of lignin in seaweed reveals convergent evolution of cell-wall architecture.
P.T. Martone, J.M. Estevez, F. Lu, K. Ruel, M.W. Denny, C. Somerville and J. Ralph.
Current Biology, 19(2), 169-175 (2009).

Identification of lignin and polysaccharide modifications in Populus pood by chemometric analysis of 2D NMR spectra from dissolved cell walls.
M. Hedenström, S. Wiklund-Lindstrom, T. Öman, F. Lu, L. Gerbner, P.F. Schatz, B. Sundberg and J. Ralph.
Molecular Plant, 2(5), 933-942 (2009).

Grass lignin acylation: p-coumaroyl transferase activity and cell wall characteristics of C3 and C4 grasses.
R.D. Hatfield, J.M. Marita, K. Frost, J.H. Grabber, F. Lu, H. Kim and J. Ralph.
Planta, 229(6), 1253-1267 (2009).

Cell wall fermentation kinetics are impacted more by lignin content and ferulate cross-linking than by lignin composition.
J.H. Grabber, D.R. Mertens, H. Kim, C. Funk, F. Lu and J. Ralph.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 89(1), 122-129 (2009).

Evidence for cleavage of lignin by a brown rot basidomycete.
D.J. Yelle, J. Ralph, F. Lu and K.E. Hammel.
Environmental Microbiology, 10(7), 1844-1849 (2008).

Characterization of non-derivatized plant cell walls using high-resolution solution-state NMR spectroscopy.
D.J. Yelle, J. Ralph and C.R. Frihart.
Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry, 46(6), 508-517 (2008).

Lignin engineering.
R. Vanholme, K. Morreel, J. Ralph and W. Boerjan.
Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 11(3), 278-285 (2008).

Identification of the structure and origin of a thioacidolysis marker compound for ferulic acid incorporation into angiosperm lignins (and an indicator for cinnamoyl-CoA reductase deficiency).
J. Ralph, H. Kim, F. Lu, J.H. Grabber, J.-C. Leplé, J. Berrio-Sierra, M. Mir Derikvand, L. Jouanin, W. Boerjan and C. Lapierre.
The Plant Journal, 53(2), 368-379 (2008).

Lignification: Are lignins biosynthesized via simple combinatorial chemistry or via proteinaceous control and template replication?
J. Ralph, G. Brunow, P.J. Harris, R.A. Dixon, P.F. Schatz and W. Boerjan.
In Recent Advances in Polyphenol Research, Vol 1, F. Daayf, A. El Hadrami, L. Adam and G.M. Ballance, Eds., Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK, Vol. 1, pp. 36-66 (2008).

Novel tetrahydrofuran structures derived from β–β-coupling reactions involving sinapyl acetate in Kenaf lignins.
F. Lu and J. Ralph.
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, 6(20), 3681-3694 (2008).

Solution-state 2D NMR of ball-milled plant cell wall gels in DMSO-d6.
H. Kim, J. Ralph and T. Akiyama.
BioEnergy Research, 1(1), 56-66 (2008).

A potential role of sinapyl p-coumarate as a radical transfer mechanism in grass lignin formation.
R.D. Hatfield, J. Ralph and J.H. Grabber.
Planta, 228, 919-928 (2008).

Coniferyl ferulate incorporation into lignin enhances the alkaline delignification and enzymatic degradation of maize cell walls.
J.H. Grabber, R.D. Hatfield, F. Lu and J. Ralph.
Biomacromolecules, 9(9), 2510-2516 (2008).

Isolation and characterisation of a coffee melanoidin fraction.
D. Gniechwitz, N. Reichardt, J. Ralph, M. Blaut, H. Steinhart and M. Bunzel.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 88(12), 2153-2160 (2008).

Characterization and fermentability of an ethanol soluble high molecular weight coffee fraction.
D. Gniechwitz, N. Reichardt, E. Meiss, J. Ralph, H. Steinhart, M. Blaut and M. Bunzel.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(14), 5960-5969 (2008).

Stone fruit stones: A model system for studying lignin biosynthesis and regulation.
C. Dardick, A. Callahan, R. Scorza, R. Chiozzotto, J. Ralph and R. Schaffer.
Hortscience, 43(4), 1118-1119 (2008).

Peroxidase-catalyzed oligomerization of ferulic acid esters.
M. Bunzel, B. Heuermann, H. Kim and J. Ralph.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(21), 10368-10375 (2008).

Cross-linking of arabinoxylans via 8-8-coupled diferulates as demonstrated by isolation and identification of diarabinosyl 8-8(cyclic)-dehydrodiferulate from maize bran.
M. Bunzel, E. Allerdings, J. Ralph and H. Steinhart.
Journal of Cereal Science, 47(1), 29-40 (2008).

Molecular phenotyping of the pal1 and pal2 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana reveals far-reaching consequences on phenylpropanoid, amino acid, and carbohydrate metabolism.
A. Rohde, K. Morreel, J. Ralph, G. Goeminne, V. Hostyn, R. De Rycke, S. Kushnir, J. Van Doorsselaere, J.P. Joseleau, M. Vuylsteke, G. Van Driessche, J. Van Beeumen, E. Messens and W. Boerjan.
Plant Cell, 16(10), 2749-2771 (2004).

Cryoprobe 3D NMR of acetylated ball-milled pine cell walls.
J. Ralph and F. Lu.
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 2(19), 2714-2715 (2004).

Genetic and molecular basis of grass cell wall biosynthesis and degradability. III. Towards a forage grass ideotype.
J. Ralph, S. Guillaume, J.H. Grabber, C. Lapierre and Y. Barrière.
Comptes Rendus Biologies, 327(5), 467-479 (2004).

Peroxidase-dependent cross-linking reactions of p-hydroxycinnamates in plant cell walls.
J. Ralph, M. Bunzel, J.M. Marita, R.D. Hatfield, F. Lu, H. Kim, P.F. Schatz, J.H. Grabber and H. Steinhart.
Phytochemistry Reviews, 3(1), 79-96 (2004).

Lignins: natural polymers from oxidative coupling of 4-hydroxyphenylpropanoids.
J. Ralph, Lundquist, K., Brunow, G. Lu, F., Kim, H., Schatz, P. F., Marita, J. M., Hatfield, R. D., Ralph, S. A. Christensen, J. H., Boerjan, W.
Phytochemistry Reviews, 3(1), 29-60 (2004).

Phenolic profiling of caffeic acid O-methyltransferase-deficient poplar reveals novel benzodioxane oligolignols.
K. Morreel, J. Ralph, F. Lu, G. Goeminne, R. Busson, P. Herdewijn, J.L. Goeman, J. Van der Eycken, W. Boerjan and E. Messens.
Plant Physiology, 136(4), 4023-4036 (2004).

Profiling of oligolignols reveals monolignol coupling conditions in lignifying poplar xylem.
K. Morreel, J. Ralph, H. Kim, F. Lu, G. Goeminne, S.A. Ralph, E. Messens and W. Boerjan.
Plant Physiology, 136(3), 3537-3549 (2004).

Preparation and relevance of a cross-coupling product between sinapyl alcohol and sinapyl p-hydroxybenzoate.
F. Lu, J. Ralph, K. Morreel, E. Messens and W. Boerjan.
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 2, 2888-2890 (2004).

Signatures of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase deficiency in poplar lignins.
C. Lapierre, G. Pilate, B. Pollet, I. Mila, J.C. Leplé, L. Jouanin, H. Kim and J. Ralph.
Phytochemistry, 65(3), 313-321 (2004).

Comparison of the consequences on lignin content and structure of COMT and CAD downregulation in poplar and Arabidopsis thaliana.
L. Jouanin, T. Gujon, R. Sibout, B. Pollet, I. Mila, J.C. Leplé, G. Pilate, M. Petit-Conil, J. Ralph and C. Lapierre.
In Plantation Forest Biotechnology in the 21st Century, C. Walter and M. Carson, Eds., Research Signpost, Kerala, India, pp. 219-229 (2004).

Structural characterization of lignin during Pinus taeda wood treatment with Ceripotiopsis subvermispora.
A. Guerra, M. Régis, A. Ferraz, F. Lu and J. Ralph.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 70(7), 4073-4078 (2004).

Genetic and molecular basis of grass cell-wall degradability. I. Lignin-cell wall matrix interactions.
J.H. Grabber, J. Ralph, C. Lapierre and Y. Barrière.
Comptes Rendus Biologies, 327(5), 455-465 (2004).

The Gel-Forming Polysaccharide of Psyllium Husk. Plantago ovata Forsk.
M.H. Fischer, N. Yu, G.A. Gray, L. Anderson, J. Ralph and J.A. Marlett.
Carbohydrate Research, 339(11), 2009-2017 (2004).

Phenolic compounds as cross-links of plant derived polysaccharides.
M. Bunzel, J. Ralph and H. Steinhart.
Czech Journal of Food Science, 22, 39-42 (2004).

Lignins and ferulate-coniferyl alcohol cross-coupling products in cereal grains.
M. Bunzel, J. Ralph, F. Lu, R.D. Hatfield and H. Steinhart.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52(21), 6496-6502 (2004).

Genetic and molecular basis of grass cell wall biosynthesis and degradability. II. Lessons from brown-midrib mutants.
Y. Barrière, J. Ralph, V. Méchin, S. Guillaumie, J.H. Grabber, O. Argillier, B. Chabbert and C. Lapierre.
Comptes Rendus Biologies, 327(9), 847-860 (2004).

Variations in the cell wall composition of maize brown midrib mutants.
J.M. Marita, W. Vermerris, J. Ralph and R.D. Hatfield.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(5), 1313-1321 (2003).

Structural and compositional modifications in lignin of transgenic alfalfa down-regulated in caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase and caffeoyl coenzyme A 3-O-methyltransferase.
J.M. Marita, J. Ralph, R.D. Hatfield, D. Guo, F. Chen and R.A. Dixon.
Phytochemistry, 62(1), 53-65 (2003).

Non-degradative dissolution and acetylation of ball-milled plant cell walls; high-resolution solution-state NMR.
F. Lu and J. Ralph.
The Plant Journal, 35(4), 535-544 (2003).

Combinatorial modification of multiple lignin traits in trees through multigene cotransformation.
L. Li, Y. Zhou, X. Cheng, J. Sun, J.M. Marita, J. Ralph and V.L. Chiang.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100(8), 4939-4944 (2003).

NMR Analysis of Lignins in CAD-deficient Plants. Part 1. Incorporation of hydroxycinnamaldehydes and hydroxybenzaldehydes into lignins.
H. Kim, J. Ralph, F. Lu, S.A. Ralph, A.-M. Boudet, J.J. MacKay, R.R. Sederoff, T. Ito, S. Kawai, H. Ohashi and T. Higuchi.
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 1, 268-281 (2003).

Apoplastic pH and Monolignol Addition Rate Effects on Lignin Formation and Cell Wall Degradability in Maize.
J.H. Grabber, R.D. Hatfield and J. Ralph.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(17), 4984-4989 (2003).

A new Arabidopsis thaliana mutant deficient in the expression of O-methyltransferase impacts lignins and sinapoyl esters.
T. Goujon, R. Sibout, B. Pollet, B. Mabra, L. Nussaume, N. Bechtold, F. Lu, J. Ralph, I. Mila, Y. Barrière, C. Lapierre and L. Jouanin.
Plant Molecular Biology, 51(6), 973-989 (2003).

Bacterial antimutagenesis by hydroxycinnamic acids from plant cell walls.
L.R. Ferguson, I.F. Lim, A.E. Pearson, J. Ralph and P.J. Harris.
Mutation Research, 542(1-2), 49-58 (2003).

Sinapate dehydrodimers and sinapate-ferulate heterodimers in cereal dietary fiber.
M. Bunzel, J. Ralph, H. Kim, F. Lu, S.A. Ralph, J.M. Marita, R.D. Hatfield and H. Steinhart.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(5), 1427-1434 (2003).

Isolation and identification of a ferulic acid dehydrotrimer from saponified maize bran insoluble fiber.
M. Bunzel, J. Ralph, C. Funk and H. Steinhart.
European Food Research and Technology, 217(2), 128-133 (2003).

Lignin biosynthesis.
W. Boerjan, J. Ralph and M. Baucher.
Annual Reviews in Plant Biology, 54, 519-549 (2003).

Preliminary evidence for sinapyl acetate as a lignin monomer in kenaf.
F. Lu and J. Ralph.
Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications, (1), 90-91 (2002).

Identification of the structure and origin of thioacidolysis marker compounds for cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase deficiency in angiosperms.
H. Kim, J. Ralph, F. Lu, G. Pilate, J.C. Leplé, B. Pollet and C. Lapierre.
Journal of Biological Chemistry, 277(49), 47412-47419 (2002).

Model studies of ferulate-coniferyl alcohol cross-product formation in primary maize walls: implications for lignification in grasses.
J.H. Grabber, J. Ralph and R.D. Hatfield.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50(21), 6008-6016 (2002).

Strukturbildende phenolische Verbindungen in Getreideballaststoffen am Beispiel löslicher und unlöslicher Roggenballaststoffe {Structural phenolic components in cereal dietary fiber: soluble and insoluble rye dietary fiber}.
M. Bunzel, H. Steinhart and J. Ralph.
Getreide, Mehl und Brot {Grain, Flour, and Bread}, 56(5), 281-286 (2002).

Cell wall hydroxycinnamates in wild rice (Zizania aquatica L.) insoluble dietary fibre.
M. Bunzel, E. Allerdings, V. Sinwell, J. Ralph and H. Steinhart.
European Food Research and Technology, 214(6), 482-488 (2002).

Acidolysis and hot water extraction provide new insights into the composition of induced "lignin-like" material from squash fruit.
R.R. Stange, J. Ralph, J. Peng, J.J. Sims, S.L. Midland and R.E. McDonald.
Phytochemistry, 57(6), 1005-1011 (2001).

Elucidation of new structures in lignins of CAD- and COMT-deficient plants by NMR.
J. Ralph, C. Lapierre, J. Marita, H. Kim, F. Lu, R.D. Hatfield, S.A. Ralph, C. Chapple, R. Franke, M.R. Hemm, J. Van Doorsselaere, R.R. Sederoff, D.M. O’Malley, J.T. Scott, J.J. MacKay, N. Yahiaoui, A.-M. Boudet, M. Pean, G. Pilate, L. Jouanin and W. Boerjan.
Phytochemistry, 57(6), 993-1003 (2001).

NMR evidence for benzodioxane structures resulting from incorporation of 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol into lignins of O-methyl-transferase-deficient poplars.
J. Ralph, C. Lapierre, F. Lu, J.M. Marita, G. Pilate, J. Van Doorsselaere, W. Boerjan and L. Jouanin.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49(1), 86-91 (2001).

NMR characterization of lignins from transgenic poplars with suppressed caffeic acid O-methyltransferase activity.
J.M. Marita, J. Ralph, C. Lapierre, L. Jouanin and W. Boerjan.
Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 1, (22), 2939-2945 (2001).

Strong decrease in lignin content without significant alteration of plant development is induced by simultaneous down-regulation of cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) in tobacco plants.
M. Chabannes, A. Barakate, C. Lapierre, J. Marita, J. Ralph, M. Pean, S. Danoun, C. Halpin, J. Grima-Pettenatia and A.-M. Boudet.
The Plant Journal, 28(3), 257-270 (2001).

Diferulates as structural components in soluble and insoluble dietary fibre.
M. Bunzel, J. Ralph, J.M. Marita, R.D. Hatfield and H. Steinhart.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 81(7), 653-660 (2001).

Lignin biosynthesis in poplar: genetic engineering and effects on Kraft pulping.
W. Boerjan, H. Meyermans, C. Chen, M. Baucher, J. Van Doorsselaere, K. Morreel, E. Messens, C. Lapierre, B. Pollet, L. Jouanin, J.C. Leplé, J. Ralph, J.M. Marita, E. Guiney, W. Schuch, M. Petit-Conil and G. Pilate.
In Molecular Breeding of Woody Plants, N. Morohoshi and A. Komamine, Eds., Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Vol. Progress in Biotechnology Series, Vol. 18, pp. Chapter 23: 187-194 (2001).

Ferulates and diiferulates as nucleation sites for lignification in grasses.
J. Ralph, R.D. Hatfield and J.H. Grabber.
Polyphénols Actualités, (17), 4-6 (2000).

Diferulates analysis: new diferulates and disinapates in insoluble cereal fibre.
J. Ralph, M. Bunzel, J.M. Marita, R.D. Hatfield, F. Lu, H. Kim, J.H. Grabber, S.A. Ralph, G. Jimenez-Monteon and H. Steinhart.
Polyphénols Actualités, (19), 13-17 (2000).

Modifications in lignin and accumulation of phenolic glucosides in poplar xylem upon down-regulation of caffeoyl-coenzyme A O-methyltransferase, an enzyme involved in lignin biosynthesis.
H. Meyermans, K. Morreel, C. Lapierre, B. Pollet, A. De Bruyn, R. Busson, P. Herdewijn, B. Devreese, J. Van Beeumen, J.M. Marita, J. Ralph, C. Chen, B. Burggraeve, M. Van Montagu, E. Messens and W. Boerjan.
Journal of Biological Chemistry, 275(47), 36899-36909 (2000).

Cross-coupling of hydroxycinnamyl aldehydes into lignins.
H. Kim, J. Ralph, N. Yahiaoui, M. Pean and A.-M. Boudet.
Organic Letters, 2(15), 2197-2200 (2000).

Cross-linking of maize walls by ferulate dimerization and incorporation into lignin.
J.H. Grabber, J. Ralph and R.D. Hatfield.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48(12), 6106-6113 (2000).

Identification of 4-O-5'-coupled diferulic acid from insoluble cereal fiber.
M. Bunzel, J. Ralph, J.M. Marita and H. Steinhart.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48(8), 3166-3169 (2000).

Unexpected variation in lignin.
R.R. Sederoff, J.J. MacKay, J. Ralph and R.D. Hatfield.
Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 2(2), 145-152 (1999).

Are lignins optically active?
J. Ralph, J. Peng, F. Lu, R.D. Hatfield and R.F. Helm.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 47(8), 2991-2996 (1999).

Solution-state NMR of lignins.
J. Ralph, J.M. Marita, S.A. Ralph, R.D. Hatfield, F. Lu, R.M. Ede, J. Peng, S. Quideau, R.F. Helm, J.H. Grabber, H. Kim, G. Jimenez-Monteon, Y. Zhang, H.-J.G. Jung, L.L. Landucci, J.J. MacKay, R.R. Sederoff, C. Chapple and A.M. Boudet.
In Advances in Lignocellulosics Characterization, D.S. Argyropoulos, Eds., TAPPI Press, Atlanta, GA, pp. 55-108 (1999).

Arylpropane-1,3-diols in lignins from normal and CAD-deficient pines.
J. Ralph, H. Kim, J. Peng and F. Lu.
Organic Letters, 1(2), 323-326 (1999).

The DFRC method for lignin analysis. Part 5. Isochroman lignin trimers from DFRC-degraded Pinus taeda.
J. Peng, F. Lu and J. Ralph.
Phytochemistry, 50(4), 659-666 (1999).

NMR characterization of lignins in Arabidopsis altered in the activity of ferulate-5-hydroxylase.
J. Marita, J. Ralph, R.D. Hatfield and C. Chapple.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 96(22), 12328-12332 (1999).

Detection and determination of p-coumaroylated units in lignins.
F. Lu and J. Ralph.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 47(5), 1988-1992 (1999).

The DFRC method for lignin analysis. 7. The behavior of cinnamyl end-groups.
F. Lu and J. Ralph.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 47(5), 1981-1987 (1999).

Accuracy of Klason lignin and acid detergent lignin methods as assessed by bomb calorimetry.
H.-J.G. Jung, V.H. Varel, P.J. Weimer and J. Ralph.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 47(5), 2005-2008 (1999).

Repression of lignin biosynthesis in transgenic trees promotes cellulose accumulation and growth.
W.-J. Hu, J. Lung, S.A. Harding, J.L. Popko, J. Ralph, D.D. Stokke, C.-J. Tsai and V.L. Chiang.
Nature Biotechnology, 17(8), 808-812 (1999).

Cell wall cross-linking by ferulates and diferulates in grasses.
R.D. Hatfield, J. Ralph and J.H. Grabber.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 79(3), 403-407 (1999).

Cell wall structural foundations: molecular basis for improving forage digestabilities.
R.D. Hatfield, J. Ralph and J.H. Grabber.
Crop Science, 39(1), 27-37 (1999).

Modeling the feasibility of intramolecular dehydrodiferulate formation in grass walls.
R.D. Hatfield and J. Ralph.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 79(3), 425-427 (1999).

Using the acetyl bromide assay to determine lignin concentrations in herbaceous plants: some cautionary notes.
R.D. Hatfield, J.H. Grabber, J. Ralph and K. Brei.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 47(2), 628-632 (1999).

Antioxidant properties of 4,4'-dihydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-b,b'-bicinnamic acid (8-8-diferulate non-cyclic form).
M.T. Garcia-Conesa, P.D. Wilson, G.W. Plumb, J. Ralph and G. Williamson.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 79(3), 379-384 (1999).

A cinnamoyl esterase from Aspergillus niger can break plant cell wall cross-links without release of free diferulic acids.
M.T. Garcia-Conesa, P.A. Kroon, J. Ralph, F.A. Mellon, I.J. Colquhoun, L. Saulnier, J.-F. Thibault and G. Williamson.
European Journal of Biochemistry, 266(2), 644-652 (1999).

Lignin-ferulate crosslinks in grasses: active incorporation of ferulate polysaccharide esters into ryegrass lignins.
J. Ralph, J.H. Grabber and R.D. Hatfield.
Carbohydrate Research, 275(1), 167-178 (1995).

Ferulate cross-linking in cell walls isolated from maize cell suspensions.
J.H. Grabber, R.D. Hatfield, J. Ralph, J. Zon and N. Amrhein.
Phytochemistry, 40(4), 1077-1082 (1995).

Identification and synthesis of new ferulic acid dehydrodimers present in grass cell walls.
J. Ralph, S. Quideau, J.H. Grabber and R.D. Hatfield.
Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 1, (23), 3485-3498 (1994).

Stereoselectivity in benzyl 1,2-diaryl ether cleavage by bromotrimethylsilane.
J. Ralph, R.F. Helm, R.C. Fort and T.J. Elder.
Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 1, (15), 2117-2121 (1994).

Lignin/hydroxycinnamic acid/ polysaccharide complexes: synthetic models for regiochemical characterization.
J. Ralph and R.F. Helm.
In Forage Cell Wall Structure and Digestibility, D.R.B. H. G. Jung, R. D. Hatifield, and J. Ralph, Eds., American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America,, Madison, pp. 201-246 (1994).

Pathway of p-coumaric acid incorporation into maize lignin as revealed by NMR.
J. Ralph, R.D. Hatfield, S. Quideau, R.F. Helm, J.H. Grabber and H.-J.G. Jung.
Journal of the American Chemical Society, 116(21), 9448-9456 (1994).

A biomimetic route to lignin model compounds via silver (I) oxide oxidation. 2. NMR characterization of non-cyclic benzyl aryl ether trimers and tetramers.
S. Quideau and J. Ralph.
Holzforschung, 48(2), 124-132 (1994).

A biomimetic route to lignin model compounds via silver (I) oxide oxidation. 1. Synthesis of dilignols and non-cyclic benzyl aryl ethers.
S. Quideau and J. Ralph.
Holzforschung, 48(1), 12-22 (1994).

A comparison of the insoluble residues produced by the Klason lignin and acid detergent lignin procedures.
R.D. Hatfield, H.G. Jung, J. Ralph, D.R. Buxton and P.J. Weimer.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 65(1), 51-58 (1994).

Lignin/hydroxycinnamic acid/polysaccharide complexes: Synthetic models for regiochemical characterization.
J. Ralph and R.F. Helm.
In Forage Cell Wall Structure and Digestibility, H.G. Jung, D.R. Buxton, R.D. Hatfield and J. Ralph, Eds., American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, pp. 201-246 (1993).

1H NMR of acetylated β-ether/β-ether lignin model trimers.
J. Ralph.
Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry, 31(4), 357-363 (1993).

Synthesis of 4,8-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3,7,dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octan-2-ones and determination of their relative configuration via long-range proton couplings.
S. Quideau and J. Ralph.
Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 1, (6), 653-659 (1993).

Forage Cell Wall Structure and Digestibility.
H.G. Jung, D.R. Buxton, R.D. Hatfield and J. Ralph, Eds., American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America, Madison (1993).

Stereospecificity for zinc borohydride reduction of α-aryloxy-β-hydroxy ketones.
R.F. Helm and J. Ralph.
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology, 13(4), 593-601 (1993).

Lignin—hydroxycinnamoyl model compounds related to forage cell wall structure. 2. Ester-linked structures.
R.F. Helm and J. Ralph.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 41(4), 570-576 (1993).

Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of hydroxycinnamoylated methyl α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1→2)- and (1→3)-β-D-xylopyranosides.
R.F. Helm and J. Ralph.
Carbohydrate Research, 240, 23-38 (1993).

Impact of methyl-5-O-(E)-feruloyl-α-L-arabinofuranoside on in vitro degradation of cellulose and xylan.
D.A. Deetz, H.G. Jung, R.F. Helm, R.D. Hatfield and J. Ralph.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 61(4), 423-427 (1993).

Lignin-feruloyl ester cross-links in grasses. Part 1. Incorporation of feruloyl esters into coniferyl alcohol dehydrogenation polymers.
J. Ralph, R.F. Helm, S. Quideau and R.D. Hatfield.
Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 1, (21), 2961-2969 (1992).

Lignin-feruloyl ester cross-links in grasses. Part 2. Model compound syntheses.
J. Ralph, R.F. Helm and S. Quideau.
Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 1, (21), 2971-2980 (1992).

Facile large-scale synthesis of coniferyl, sinapyl, and p-coumaryl alcohol.
S. Quideau and J. Ralph.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 40(7), 1108-1110 (1992).

Synthesis of feruloylated and p-coumaroylated methyl glycosides.
R.F. Helm, J. Ralph and R.D. Hatfield.
Carbohydrate Research, 229(1), 183-194 (1992).

Lignin—hydroxycinnamyl model compounds related to forage cell wall structure. 1. Ether-linked structures.
R.F. Helm and J. Ralph.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 40(11), 2167-2175 (1992).

Rapid proton NMR method for determination of threo:erythro ratios in lignin model compounds and examination of reduction stereochemistry.
J. Ralph and R.F. Helm.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 39(4), 705-709 (1991).

Pyrolysis-GC-MS characterization of forage materials.
J. Ralph and R.D. Hatfield.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 39(8), 1426-1437 (1991).

The stereochemistry of guaiacyl lignin model quinonemethides.
J. Ralph, T.J. Elder and R.M. Ede.
Holzforschung, 45(3), 199-204 (1991).

Rotenone NMR assignments [Erratum to document cited in CA109(19):170096x].
R. Nunlist and J. Ralph.
Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry, 28(8), (1991).

Degradability of phenolic acid-hemicellulose esters: a model system.
H.G. Jung, J. Ralph and R.D. Hatfield.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 56(4), 469-478 (1991).

Regioselective protection strategies for D-xylopyranosides.
R.F. Helm, J. Ralph and L. Anderson.
Journal of Organic Chemistry, 56(25), 7015-7021 (1991).

Synthesis of methyl 5-O-trans-feruloyl-α-L-arabinofuranoside and its use as a substrate to assess feruloyl esterase activity.
R.D. Hatfield, R.F. Helm and J. Ralph.
Analytical Biochemistry, 194(1), 25-33 (1991).

Phenolic-carbohydrate complex in plant cell walls and their effect on lignocellulose utilization.
H.G. Jung and J. Ralph.
In Microbial and Plant Opportunities to Improve Lignocellulose Utilization by Ruminants, D.E. Akin, L.G. Ljungdahl, J.R. Wilson and P.J. Harris, Eds., Elsevier, New York, pp. 173-182 (1990).

Synthesis of affinity ligands and radioactive probes for isolation and study of myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate binding proteins.
A.N. Jina, J. Ralph and C.E. Ballou.
Biochemistry, 29(21), 5203-9 (1990).

Evidence for increased steric compression in anti compared to syn lignin model quinone methides.
R.M. Ede, L. Main and J. Ralph.
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology, 10(1), 101-10 (1990).

A one- and two-dimensional carbon-13 and proton NMR study of some triterpenes of the hopane, stictane and flavicene groups.
A.L. Wilkins, J. Bremer, J. Ralph, P.T. Holland, K.J. Ronaldson, P.M. Jager and P.W. Bird.
Australian Journal of Chemistry, 42(2), 243-57 (1989).

NMR of lignin model quinone methides. Corrected carbon-13 NMR assignments via carbon-proton correlation experiments.
J. Ralph and R.M. Ede.
Holzforschung, 42(5), 337-338 (1988).

NMR of lignin model compounds: application of long-range C-H correlations through oxygen.
J. Ralph.
Holzforschung, 42(4), 273-275 (1988).

Rotenone NMR assignments.
R. Nunlist and J. Ralph.
Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry, 25(1), 351-352 (1988).

Reactions of β-aryl lignin model quinone methides with anthrahydroquinone and anthranol.
J. Ralph, R.M. Ede, N.P. Robinson and L. Main.
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology, 7(2), 133-60 (1987).

The stereochemistry of β-5 lignin model compounds.
R.M. Ede, J. Ralph and A.L. Wilkins.
Holzforschung, 41(4), 239-45 (1987).

NMR pulse sequences for structural studies: their variety and value.
J. Ralph and S. Ralph.
Chemistry in New Zealand, 50(4), 101-5 (1986).

Adducts of anthrahydroquinone and anthranol with lignin model quinone methides. 9,10-13C labeled anthranol-lignin adducts; examination of adduct formation and stereochemistry in the polymer.
J. Ralph and L.L. Landucci.
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology, 6(1), 73-88 (1986).

Synthesis of trimeric lignin model compounds composed of β-aryl ether and phenylcoumaran structures.
J. Ralph, R.M. Ede and A.L. Wilkins.
Holzforschung, 40(1), 23-30 (1986).

Rapid NMR method for determination of threo:erythro ratios in lignin model compounds.
J. Ralph and A.L. Wilkins.
Holzforschung, 39(6), 341-344 (1985).

Adducts of anthrahydroquinone and anthranol with lignin model quinone methides. 4. Proton NMR hindered rotation studies. Correlation between solution conformations and x-ray crystal structure.
J. Ralph, L.L. Landucci, B.K. Nicholson and A.L. Wilkins.
Journal of Organic Chemistry, 49(18), 3337-40 (1984).

Anthraquinone losses during alkaline pulping.
L.L. Landucci and J. Ralph.
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology, 4(2), 149-61 (1984).

Stereochemical aspects of addition reactions involving lignin model quinone methides.
J. Ralph and R.A. Young.
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology, 3(2), 161-181 (1983).

Adducts of anthrahydroquinone and anthranol with lignin model quinone methides. 2. Dehydration derivatives. Proof of threo configuration.
J. Ralph and L.L. Landucci.
Journal of Organic Chemistry, 48(3), 372-6 (1983).

Adducts of anthrahydroquinone and anthranol with lignin model quinone methides. 3. Independent synthesis of threo and erythro isomers.
J. Ralph and L.L. Landucci.
Journal of Organic Chemistry, 48(22), 3884-9 (1983).

Determination of the conformation and isomeric composition of lignin model quinone methides by NMR.
J. Ralph and B.R. Adams.
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology, 3(2), 183-94 (1983).

Characterization of hardwood lignin: investigation of syringyl/guaiacyl composition by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
J.R. Obst and J. Ralph.
Holzforschung, 37(6), 297-302 (1983).

Reactions of lignin model quinone methides and NMR studies of lignins.
J. Ralph
in Forestry/Chemistry. J. Ralph (U. Wisconsin-Madison, University Microfilms #DA 82-26987, Madison), (1982).

Adducts of anthrahydroquinone and anthranol with lignin model quinone methides. 1. Synthesis and characterization.
L.L. Landucci and J. Ralph.
Journal of Organic Chemistry, 47(18), 3486-3495 (1982).

Synthesis of the lignin model compounds threo-guaiacylglycerol-β-guaiacyl ether and threo-veratrylglycerol-β-guaiacyl ether.
J. Ralph and R.A. Young.
Holzforschung, 35(1), 39-41 (1981).